Serous Membrane Detachment with Ultrasonic Homogenizer Improves Engraftment of Fetal Liver to Liver Surface in a Rat Model of Cirrhosis

Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage cirrhosis. However, due to serious donor shortages, new treatments to replace liver transplantation are sorely needed. Recent studies have focused on novel therapeutic methods using hepatocytes and induced pluripotent stem cells, we try hard to develop methods for transplanting these cells to the liver surface. In the present study, we evaluated several methods for their efficiency in the detachment of serous membrane covering the liver surface for transplantation to the liver surface. The liver surface of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV)-deficient rats in a cirrhosis model was detached by various methods, and then fetal livers from DPPIV-positive rats were transplanted.
We found that the engraftment rate and area as well as the liver function were improved in rats undergoing transplantation following serous membrane detachment with an ultrasonic homogenizer, which mimics the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator® (CUSA), compared with no detachment. Furthermore, the bleeding amount was lower with the ultrasonic homogenizer method than with the needle and electric scalpel methods. These findings provide evidence that transplantation to the liver surface with serous membrane detachment using CUSA might contribute to the development of new treatments for cirrhosis using cells or tissues.

Asymmetrical bidirectional VLC based on beam homogenizer OAM generation technology

An asymmetric bidirectional visible light communication (B-VLC) system is presented in this Letter. It combines beam homogenizers with a spatial light modulator (SLM) to implement the orbital angular momentum (OAM) generation technology at a terminal user for uplink data transmission. The major advantage of the proposed approach is that multiple OAM modes can be arbitrarily generated simultaneously by a single SLM. The uplink transmission capacity can also be significantly improved by multiplexing more generated OAM channels.
For the proof of concept, an asymmetric B-VLC based on the OAM generation technology for uplink transmission at a distance of nearly 2 m has been implemented. The baseband modulation schemes, including on-off keying (OOK) and quadrature phase-shift keying, were also implemented to validate the transmission performance. The experimental results show that the downlink transmission capacity of up to 2.2 Gbit/s can be achieved using an S-polarization beam. In comparison, the uplink transmission capacity can also be significantly enhanced by using P-polarization through multiplexing four OAM channels, each with a maximum transmission rate of up to 800 Mbit/s. The bit error rates (BERs) of both uplink and downlink transmissions were all under the forward error correction limit (BER=3×10-3).

An overview of different homogenizers, their working mechanisms and impact on processing of fruits and vegetables

Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are the second highest recommended foods, rich in antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, vital for building immunity against chronic diseases. F&V processing involves particle size reduction, for which different types of homogenizers, categorized as mechanical homogenizers, pressure homogenizers and ultrasonic homogenizers are used. The review discusses different types of homogenizers, their working mechanism, and application in F&V processing. Among mechanical homogenizers, knife mills are used for primary size reduction, ball mills for the micronization of dried F&V and rotor-stator homogenizers for emulsification.
Use of the ultrasonic homogenizer is limited to extraction of bioactive compounds or as a pre-treatment for dehydration of F&V. High-pressure homogenizers are most widely used and reported due to the synergistic effect of homogenization and temperature increase, resulting in longer shelf-life and better physicochemical properties of the product. Additionally, the review also explains the effect of homogenization on the physicochemical, sensory and nutraceutical properties of the product.

Pre-processing tissue specimens with a tissue homogenizer: clinical and microbiological evaluation

Background: Tissues are valuable specimens in diagnostic microbiology because they are often obtained by invasive methods, and effort should thus be taken to maximize microbiological yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the added value of using tissue pre-processing (tissue homogenizer instrument gentleMACS Dissociator) in detecting microorganisms responsible for infections.
Methods: We included 104 randomly collected tissue samples, 41 (39.4 %) bones and 63 (60.6 %) soft tissues, many of those (42/104 (40.4 %)) were of periprosthetic origins. We compared the agreement between pre-processing tissues using tissue homogenizer with routine microbiology diagnostic procedure, and we calculated the performance of these methods when clinical infections were used as reference standard.
Results: There was no significant difference between the two methods (McNemar test, p = 0.3). Among the positive culture using both methods (n = 62), 61 (98.4 %) showed at least one similar microorganism. Exactly similar microorganisms were found in 42/62 (67.7 %) of the samples. From the included tissues, 55/ 104 (52.9 %) were deemed as infected. We found that the sensitivity of homogenized tissue procedure was lower (83.6 %) than when tissue was processed using tissue homogenizer (89.1 %). Sub-analysis on periprosthetic tissues and soft or bone tissues showed comparable results.
Conclusions: The added value of GentleMACS Dissociator tissue homogenizer is limited in comparison to routine tissue processing.

Functionality of MC88- and MPC85-Enriched Skim Milk: Impact of Shear Conditions in Rotor/Stator Systems and High-Pressure Homogenizers on Powder Solubility and Rennet Gelation Behavior

Milk protein concentrate (MPC) and micellar casein (MC) powders are commonly used to increase the protein concentration of cheese milk. However, highly-concentrated milk protein powders are challenging in terms of solubility. The research question was whether and how incompletely dissolved agglomerates affect the protein functionality in terms of rennet gelation behavior. For the experiments, skim milk was enriched with either MC88 or MPC85 to a casein concentration of 4.5% (w/w) and sheared on a laboratory and pilot scale in rotor/stator systems (colloid mill and shear pump, respectively) and high-pressure homogenizers.
The assessment criteria were on the one hand particle sizes as a function of shear rate, and on the other hand, the rennet gelation properties meaning gelling time, gel strength, structure loss upon deformation, and serum loss. Furthermore, the casein, whey protein, and casein macropeptide (CMP) recovery in the sweet whey was determined to  and to lower amounts of CMP  evaluate the shear-, and hence, the particle size-dependent protein accessibility. We showed that insufficient powder rehydration prolongs the rennet gelation time, leading to softer, weaker gels, and to lower amounts of CMP and whey protein in the sweet whey.
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