Environmental Monitoring of Methane with Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Exploiting an Electronic Hygrometer to Compensate the H 2 O Influence on the Sensor Signal

A dual-gas sensor based on the combination of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor and an electronic hygrometer was realized for the simultaneous detection of methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) in air. The QEPAS sensor employed an interband cascade laser operating at 3.34 μm capable of targeting a CH4 absorption line at 2988.8 cm-1 and a water line at 2988.6 cm-1. Water vapor was measured with both the electronic hygrometer and the QEPAS sensor for comparison.
The measurement accuracy provided by the hygrometer enabled the adjustment of methane QEPAS signal with respect to the water vapor concentration to retrieve the actual CH4 concentration. The sensor was tested by performing prolonged measurements of CH4 and H2O over 60 h to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for environmental monitoring applications.

The influence of water in silicate melt on aluminium excess in plagioclase as a potential hygrometer.

Measuring water contents of magmas is fundamental to resolving a number of geological questions, such as the mechanisms of silicic magma evolution, the triggering of volcanic eruptions, and the formation of porphyry copper deposits. This study focuses on the correlation between apparent deviations from stoichiometry of plagioclase crystals and high water concentration in the magmatic melt from which they grew. We considered this relationship as a potential geo-hygrometer (water activity indicator). To test and potentially calibrate this new technique, a range of natural and experimental plagioclase crystals were analysed, with particular care taken to identify and avoid analytical bias and artefacts.
In contrast to recently published material, we found no systematic aluminium excess in plagioclase, irrespective of the water concentration of the silicate melt it crystallised from. This suggests that aluminium excess in plagioclase cannot serve as a geo-hygrometer. The high likelihood of misinterpreting analytical artefacts (due to alkali migration and imprecise standardisation) as small deviations from stoichiometry, also requires its application as https://biodas.org/ a mineral exploration tool to be treated with caution.

Application of three hygrometers under different skin conditions in dogs: dry, moist and haired skin.

Hydration is one parameter of skin barrier function. The Skicon-200EX® and Corneometer CM825® are hygrometers used to measure skin hydration in humans based on different measurement methods. The ASA-MX3® is a hygrometer used to obtain measurements at haired skin sites in humans.
OBJECTIVE
To validate three hygrometers to measure skin dryness in dogs.
METHODS
Six clinically normal research dogs.
METHODS
In vivo evaluation of three hygrometers for three different skin types was performed. Measurement of hydration was performed at five different regional sites. Dry and moist skin were induced by treatment with a sorbent and petrolatum, respectively, and measurements were collected for 120 min. Skin sites with three different hair lengths were evaluated to determine whether hair would interfere with hydration measurements.
RESULTS
All three hygrometers obtained measurements at the nonhaired skin sites, except the ASA-MX3® hygrometer at the ear site. At the dry skin sites the Skicon-200EX® hygrometer detected a significant decrease of water content for longer than the other devices. At the moist skin sites the Corneometer CM825® and ASA-MX3® hygrometers showed a significant increase in water content. The ASA-MX3® hygrometer was the only device that could obtain measurements at sites with hair.
CONCLUSIONS
The Skicon-200EX® hygrometer was the most sensitive for detecting skin dryness, whereas the Corneometer CM825® and ASA-MX3® hygrometers detected an emollient effect. Only the ASA-MX3® could provide measurements at the haired sites. This study may assist in the selection of a hygrometer based on the purpose of use.

Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer.

Differences between stratospheric water vapor measurements by NOAA frost point hygrometers (FPHs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are evaluated for the period August 2004 through December 2012 at Boulder, Colorado, Hilo, Hawaii, and Lauder, New Zealand. Two groups of MLS profiles coincident with the FPH soundings at each site are identified using unique sets of spatiotemporal criteria. Before evaluating the differences between coincident FPH and MLS profiles, each FPH profile is convolved with the MLS averaging kernels for eight pressure levels from 100 to 26 hPa (~16 to 25 km) to reduce its vertical resolution to that of the MLS water vapor retrievals.
The mean FPH – MLS differences at every pressure level (100 to 26 hPa) are well within the combined measurement uncertainties of the two instruments. However, the mean differences at 100 and 83 hPa are statistically significant and negative, ranging from -0.46 ± 0.22 ppmv (-10.3 ± 4.8%) to -0.10 ± 0.05 ppmv (-2.2 ± 1.2%). Mean differences at the six pressure levels from 68 to 26 hPa are on average 0.8% (0.04 ppmv), and only a few are statistically significant. The FPH – MLS differences at each site are examined for temporal trends using weighted linear regression analyses. The vast majority of trends determined here are not statistically significant, and most are smaller than the minimum trends detectable in this analysis. Except at 100 and 83 hPa, the average agreement between MLS retrievals and FPH measurements of stratospheric water vapor is better than 1%.

Evaluation of UT/LS hygrometer accuracy by intercomparison during the NASA MACPEX mission.

Acquiring accurate measurements of water vapor at the low mixing ratios (< 10 ppm) encountered in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) has proven to be a significant analytical challenge evidenced by persistent disagreements between high-precision hygrometers. These disagreements have caused uncertainties in the description of the physical processes controlling dehydration of air in the tropical tropopause layer and entry of water into the stratosphere and have hindered validation of satellite water vapor retrievals. A 2011 airborne intercomparison of a large group of in situ hygrometers onboard the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft and balloons has provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate progress in the scientific community toward improved measurement agreement.
In this work we intercompare the measurements from the Midlatitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) and discuss the quality of agreement. Differences between values reported by the instruments were reduced in comparison to some prior campaigns but were nonnegligible and on the order of 20% (0.8 ppm). Our analysis suggests that unrecognized errors in the quantification of instrumental background for some or all of the hygrometers are a likely cause. Until these errors are understood, differences at this level will continue to somewhat limit our understanding of cirrus microphysical processes and dehydration in the tropical tropopause layer.

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