Practical quantum access network over a 10 Gbit/s Ethernet passive optical network

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides an information-theoretically secure method to share keys between legitimate users. To achieve large-scale deployment of QKD, it should be easily scalable and cost-effective. The infrastructure construction of quantum access network (QAN) expands network capacity and the integration between QKD and classical optical communications reduces the cost of channel. Here, we present a practical downstream QAN over a 10 Gbit/s Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON), which can support up to 64 users.
In the full coexistence scheme using the single feeder fiber structure, the co-propagation of QAN and 10G-EPON signals with 9 dB attenuation is achieved over 21 km fiber, and the secure key rate for each of 16 users reaches 1.5 kbps. In the partial coexistence scheme using the dual feeder fiber structure, the combination of QAN and full-power 10G-EPON signals is achieved over 11 km with a network capacity of 64-user. The practical QAN over the 10G-EPON in our work implements an important step towards the achievement of large-scale QKD infrastructure.

An Internet of Vehicles (IoV) Access Gateway Design Considering the Efficiency of the In-Vehicle Ethernet Backbone

A vehicular network is composed of an in-vehicle network (IVN) and Internet of Vehicles (IoV). IVN exchanges information among in-vehicle devices. IoV constructs Vehicle-to-X (V2X) networks outside vehicles and exchanges information among V2X elements. These days, in-vehicle devices that require high bandwidth is increased for autonomous driving services. Thus, the spread of data for vehicles is exploding. This kind of data is exchanged through IoV. Even if the Ethernet backbone of IVN carries a lot of data in the vehicle, the explosive increase in data from outside the vehicle can affect the backbone. That is, the transmission efficiency of the IVN backbone will be reduced due to excessive data traffic. In addition, when IVN data traffic is transmitted to IoV without considering IoV network conditions, the transmission efficiency of IoV is also reduced.
Therefore, in this paper, we propose an IoV access gateway to controls the incoming data traffic to the IVN backbone and the outgoing data traffic to the IoV in the network environment where IVN and IoV are integrated. Computer simulations are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed system, and the proposed system shows better performance in the accumulated average transmission delay.

Design of a FlexRay/Ethernet Gateway and Security Mechanism for In-Vehicle Networks.

Due to the development of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS), the Ethernet has become one of the most important communication protocols for the future of automotive networks. This is because the existing communication protocols (such as FlexRay) do not provide sufficiently high bandwidth requirements. The main challenge for the automotive industry will be to transfer and extend standard IP and Ethernet into vehicles and still fulfill the automotive requirements. The automotive gateway not only links two or more protocols and exchanges the data using each, but also monitors and ensures functional safety.
This paper proposes a FlexRay/Ethernet gateway by considering the development conditions of embedded systems and the security in the field of vehicle networking. The proposed method is implemented on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) system to evaluate running time and to analyze the overhead of the security mechanism. For one-to-one mapping logic, the execution times of FlexRay to the Ethernet path and Ethernet to FlexRay path are constant, at 4.67 μs and 6.71 μs, respectively. In particular, cybersecurity can be integrated as an extension of the gateway with low latency and power consumption.

Low-cost optical fiber temperature-sensing system employing optical transceivers for Ethernet and long-period fiber grating.

Optical fiber sensors have numerous advantages over electrical sensors. However, in some cases, sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors are inferior to electrical sensors in terms of cost because expensive instruments are required. Therefore, cost-effective options must be developed. Here, inexpensive optical transceivers (OTRs) for Ethernet were used instead of a broadband light source and optical spectrum analyzer, and a CO2 laser-induced long-period fiber grating (LPFG) was used as a temperature sensor.
The sensing system was implemented introducing OTRs and LPFG in an experimental internet protocol (IP) over Ethernet. The results showed that a low-cost sensing system can estimate the ambient temperature of the LPFG based on the no-reply rate for the internet control message protocol echo request. Regarding the sensing performance, the measurable range was ∼100°C with ±4.5°C errors.

Improving Worst-Case Delay Analysis for Traffic of Additional Stream Reservation Class in Ethernet-AVB Network.

With the increase in the number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) and future requirements for vehicle functions, two SR (Stream Reservation) traffic classes may not be sufficient to ensure fulfilment of constraints for multiple traffic types with individual timing requirements transmitted in the Ethernet-AVB (Audio Video Bridging) networks. The goal of this paper is to determine the worst-case delay for an additional SR traffic class under the CBS (Credit-Based Shaper) algorithm. Delay evaluation is based on the impact analysis of CBS on different priority flows, particularly depending on when the credits of both SR class A and B drain from the worst-case perspective.
More specifically, both the impact of CBS and the evolution trends of credit on different priority class flows are first analyzed from the worst-case perspective. Then, for an additional SR class, two types of worst-case delay models are established with the CBS configuration suggestions. Finally, an approach to calculate the worst-case queuing delay is proposed. Moreover, the worst-case end-to-end delay is determined by the network calculus approach and simulation. Numerical results show that the delay bounds of our models are tighter than those of other models, which is beneficial to the development of Ethernet-AVB for in-vehicle networking.
The complexity and costs of the avionics communication architecture are increasing exponentially with the increasing number of embedded computers over the last few decades. To limit the cabling complexity and the deployment costs of such a communication architecture, we specify a new Gigabit multiple-ring Ethernet network, called AeroRing, while meeting the avionics requirements. First, we describe the current Aircraft Data Communication Network (ADCN) to highlight the main characteristics and requirements that have to be fulfilled by our solution.
Then, we give an overview of the most relevant solutions to improve ADCN performance and relate them to AeroRing. Afterwards, we detail the specifications and the main Performance Indicators (PIs) of AeroRing. Finally, sensitivity and validation analyses of AeroRing are conducted through a realistic avionics application, regarding the various PIs, in comparison to the backbone network of the ADCN, the Avionics Full DupleX Switched Ethernet (AFDX). The computed AeroRing performance metrics show its ability to guarantee the avionics requirements.

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